I suggest you should watch some videos to check the results differences between resin and filament. Difference is astonishing
Production with resins is more tedious and toxic. And post production is also tedious You will need gloves, mask and open the window. However, these inconveniences vanish when you see the results. Precision makes resins a much better option to print microscope pieces.
Light properties of resins can vary depending of materials, There are many. Ask a good manofacturer.
I don’t know about problems with black matte resins. Although in case of problems probably I would try some anti-reflective painting for optics materials, which are cheap. In example:
I fear the results with filament could disappoint you because the poor precision. Better spending some time watching videos in youtube to find the best option for your needs.
On my humble view, for somebody expecting only an eventual production of little pieces with higher needs of precision, any cheap model of resin printer (Elegoo, Anycubic…) is enough . Resin is the best option without any doubt in that space. check some videos in internet and you will see by yourself.
For technical questions about some resin adequate to your needs maybe you can ask a good manofacturer like Formlabs, 3DM… There are many.